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Publications

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Recently Published Articles

  • Brooks, G.R., Doyle, L.J., Suthard, B.C., and DeWitt, N.T., 1999, Inner West-Central Florida Continental Shelf; Sedimentary Facies and Facies Associations: USGS Open-File Report 98-796, 148 p.


The following four papers use the isotopic compositions of Fe-Mn crusts to reconstruct Cenozoic seawater chemistry, which can be used to delineate the evolution of deep-water circulation. Deep-water circulation is one of the main controls of global climate, and the data generated from these papers can be used in predictive models for global climate change.

  • Burton, K.W., Bourdon, B., Birck, J.-L., Allgre, C.J., and Hein, J.R., 1999, Osmium isotope variations in the oceans recorded by Fe-Mn crusts: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 171, no. 1, p. 185-197.

  • Burton, K.W., Lee, D.-C., Christensen, J.N., Halliday, A.N., and Hein, J.R., 1999, Actual timing of neodymium isotopic variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts in the western North Atlantic: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 171, no.1, p. 149-156.

  • Frank, M., O'Nions, R.K., Hein, J.R., and Banakar, V.K., 1999, 60-Myr records of major elements and Pb-Nd isotopes from hydrogenous ferromanganese crusts--Reconstruction of seawater paleochemistry: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 63, p. 1689-1708.

  • Lee, D.-C., Halliday, A.N., Hein, J.R., Burton, K.W., Christensen, J.N., and GŸnther, D., 1999, Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts: Science, v. 285, p. 1052-1054.


The following paper describes a deposit from the geologic record that is an analog for hydrothermal Mn deposits that commonly occur along the submarine parts of volcanically active arcs in the West Pacific, such as that described in the Open-File Report. The Milos deposit offers an excellent view of the third dimension and the plumbing system of such hydrothermal systems.

  • Hein, J.R., Moon, J.-W., Lee, K.-Y., Dowling, J.S., Kim, K.-H., Burrows, M., Park, S.H., Choi, Y.-J., Schuetze, A.A., Jung, H. S., Kim, H.-S., Lee, G.C., Park, C.-K., Son, S.K., and Park, C.Y., 1999, Co-rich Fe-Mn crusts from the Marshall Islands (Leg 1) and hydrothermal and hydrogenetic Fe-Mn deposits from Micronesia (Leg 2), KODOS 98-3 cruise, West Pacific: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 99-412, 63 p.

  • Hein, J.R., Stamatakis, M.G., and Dowling, J., 1999, Hydrothermal Mn-oxide deposit rich in Ba, Zn, As, Pb, and Sb, Milos Island, Greece, in Stanley, C.J., et al. (eds.), Mineral Deposits: Processes to Processing: Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 519-522.

  • Hein, J.R., Wong, F.L., and Mosier, D.L., 1999, Bathymetry of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2324.


  • Morton, R.A., Kindinger, J.K., Flocks, J.G., and Stewart, L.B., 1999, Climatic-eustatic control of Holocene nearshore parasequence development, southeastern Texas coast (abs.): Transactions, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 49, p. 384-395.

  • Parsons, T., Hart, and P.E., 1999, Dipping San Andreas and Hayward faults revealed beneath San Francisco Bay, California: Geology, v. 27, p. 839-842.

    • Results from three BASIX cruises (1991-1997) are combined and interpreted. The San Andreas and Hayward faults dip downward toward each other in the lower crust beneath seismogenic depths at 60” and 70”, respectively. Previously, the high-amplitude reflections were interpreted as a middle-crustal detachment fault that connects the two faults beneath San Francisco Bay. The newest data collected in 1997 gave a more three-dimensional view and enabled us to show that reflection dip is dependent on recording azimuth with respect to the major fault zones.

      The BASIX experiments were begun after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake because some interpretations of historical earthquakes indicated paired earthquakes occurring on either the San Andreas or Hayward faults within 5 years of each other. Tectonic models suggested the presence of a connecting detachment fault that might link slip on the two faults. At present, we find no evidence for a detachment fault, and triggered earthquakes can be explained with elastic stress transfer through the crust. Our results are most applicable to understanding and modeling tectonic stress loading of the faults and post-seismic stress relaxation, important components in earthquake probability analysis.

  • Parsons, T., Stein, R.S., Simpson, R.W., and Reasenberg, P.A., 1999, Stress sensitivity of fault seismicity: A comparison between limited-offset oblique and major strike-slip faults: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, p. 20, 183-20, 202.

    • The regional stress changes that occur after a major earthquake affect the probability of future earthquakes on surrounding faults by either loading or relaxing them, and thus act either to advance or delay the next big event. The coefficient of friction on faults (ranges anywhere from 0 to 1) must be estimated if modeled stress changes are to be converted to failure stress and used in probability calculations. In this paper we use the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and its aftershocks to correlate stress change with seismicity rate change and find that in the San Francisco Bay area, the major strike-slip faults are nearly frictionless, whereas thrust and oblique slip faults have very high friction. A simple model can explain these results; the large-magnitude slip faults like the San Andreas build up fault gouge that can trap high-pressure fluids and reduce friction, whereas the thrust faults lack a thick gouge seal and allow fluids to disperse.

  • Parsons, T., Wells, R.E., Fisher, M.A., Flueh, E., and ten Brink, U.S., 1999, Three-dimensional velocity structure of Siletzia and other accreted terranes in the Cascadia fore arc of Washington: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, p. 18, 015-18, 039.

    • Above the obvious seismic hazard posed by the Cascadia subduction zone interface lie many other faults in the crust. Little is known in many cases about the slip history or earthquake potential of these faults. The USGS has thus been conducting active source seismology experiments to characterize the crust and determine the essential seismotectonics to initiate a thorough seismic hazard assessment. In this paper we report the results from a 3-D array deployed in 1996 to listen to airguns from the R/V F.S. Sonne that operated offshore of Washington and Oregon. A 3-D tomographic velocity inversion maps out a major crustal block in Cascadia, the Siletz volcanic terrane. This strong block rotates because of subduction forces and concentrates earthquakes along its margins. We show that its western boundary is a high-angle thrust in coastal Oregon that evolves into a deformed low-angle thrust in Washington.

  • Poppe, L.J., Lewis, R.S., Denny, J.F., DiGiacomo-Cohen, M.L., and Parolski, K.F., 1999, Sidescan sonar image, surficial geologic interpretation, and bathymetry of the Long Island Sound seafloor around Falkner Island, Connecticut: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Map I-2671, 2 sheets, scale 1:10,000.

  • Roworth, R.T., and Signell, R.P., 1999, Construction of digital bathymetry for the Gulf of Maine: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-801, CD-ROM. (web page).

  • Swarzenski, P., and Holmes, C., 1999, Examining Freshwater/Saltwater Interface Processes with Four Radium Isotopes: Fact Sheet FS-065-99, 2 pp.

  • Swarzenski, P.W., Holmes, C.W., Shinn, E.A., and Moore, W.A., 1999, Tracing the mixing and movement of ground water into Florida Bay with four naturally occurring radium isotopes, in Hatcher, K.J., ed., Proceedings, 1999 Georgia Water Resources Conference, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, p. 590-595.

     Monterey Bay seafloor
    Geologic map of seafloor in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, interpreted from sidescan sonar and multibeam backscatter.
  • Wong, F.L., Eittreim, S.L., Degnan, C.H., and Lee, W.C., 1999, USGS Seafloor GIS for Monterey Sanctuary-Selected Data Types: 1999 ESRI International User Conference Proceedings, San Diego (web page).

    • This paper, published on the ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) Web site, previews the wealth of spatial data emerging from Coastal and Marine Geology research in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary off central California. A special volume of reports featuring the results of the 5-year program is currently being prepared, and a geographic information system (GIS) CD-ROM will accompany the report. Among the data sets that will be assembled in the GIS are:

    • geology of the shelf sea floor
    • sediment grain size
    • organic carbon content
    • foraminifer population
    • sediment budget and transport, and
    • photographic images.

    Florence Wong has introduced the GIS at several meetings this year (Coastal GeoTools 99, Charleston; Pacific Section AAPG, Monterey; ESRI, San Diego). Steve Eittreim is the Monterey project chief and spearheads the mapping element. Carolyn Degnan is the project data manager and guardian of the Monterey project (Web site). Wilson Lee is the GIS assistant on the project.


Publications Sent to Geologic Division Publications Groups

  • Baucom, P.C., Colman, S.M., and Bratton, J.F., Biogenic silica variations and trends recorded in Chesapeake Bay (abs.): EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union.

  • Cochrane, G.R., Davis, G., and Cassano, E., USGS benthic habitat mapping in the Channel Islands National Park and National Marine Sanctuary (abs.): Geology of Coastal Ecosystems Workshop, Sept. 8-10, Ocean City, MD.

  • Colman, S.M., Cronin, T.M., Bratton, J.F., Baucom, P.C., and Poag, C.W., Chronology of sedimentation in Chesapeake Bay from recent coring programs, including the 1999 R/V Marion Dufresne IMAGES leg (abs.): EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union.

  • Cooper, A.K., Hart, P., and Twichell, D., Gulf of Mexico gas hydrates--A link to shallow flows and sea-floor stability (abs.): Gas Hydrates and Challenges for the Future, Park City, Utah, July 1999.

  • Cooper, A., Hart, P., and Twichell, D., High-resolution seismic survey of potential gas hydrate deposits beneath the upper continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Edwards, B.D., and Lewis, R.C., Fluvial- versus storm-dominated controls on a mid-shelf mud belt, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Eittreim, S.L., Anima, R.J., Stevenson, A.J., Edwards, B.D., and Chavez, P.S., The Santa Cruz, California, continental shelf: Findings from side-scan sonar (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Fisher, M.A., Geophysical surveys and environmental activism (abs.): Commission of Controlled Source Seismology, 6-8 October, 1999, Dublin, Ireland.

  • Foster, D.S., Schwab, W.C., Danforth, W.W., Denny, J.F., Hill, J., Irwin, B.J., Nichols, D.R., and O'Brien, T.F., Archive of sparker data collected during USGS cruise ALPH 98013 New York Bight, 10-22 September 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 6 CD-ROMs.

  • Frye, D., Butman, B., von der Heydt, K., Maffei, A., and Lerner, S., Developing new technologies for coastal observations, low cost modular system combines acoustic and RF telemetry links: Sea Technology, September 1999.

  • Geist, E.L., Combined influence of focal depth and slip distribution on local tsunami runup for subduction zone earthquakes (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Geist, E.L., and Andrews, D.J., Slip rates on San Francisco Bay area faults from anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere: Geophysical Research Letters.

  • Gelfenbaum, G., Jaffe, B., Neal, C., and Davies, H., 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami: InterCoast Network (An international newsletter of coastal management).

  • Harris, M.S., Gayes, P.T., Kindinger, J.L., Flocks, J.G., Krantz, D.E., and Donovan-Ealy, P., Quaternary geomorphology and modern coastal development in response to an irregular geologic framework: Charleston, South Carolina: Journal of Coastal Research.

  • Holton, D.J., Normark, W.R., and Piper, D.J.W., Holocene deformation in the Santa Monica Basin, offshore southern California (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Kayen, R.E., Abrahamson, N.A., White, R.K., and Savage, W.U., Quantifying seismically induced ground deformation of San Francisco Bay mud (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Kilbourne, K.H., Field, M.E., Gardner, J.V., Zimmermann, M., and Jenkins, C., Bottom character on the Pacific shelf and slope of the U.S. and southern Canada: A foundation for evaluating benthic fish habitats (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Kindinger, J.L., Davis, J.B., and Flocks, J.G., Subsurface characterization of selected water bodies in the St. Johns River Water Management District, northeast Florida: USGS Open-File Report (oversize atlas produced for client).

  • Kindinger, J.L., and Flocks, J.G., Geologic framework and processes of Ponchartrain Basin: USGS Fact Sheet.

  • Lee, H., Locat, J., Dartnell, P., Minasian, D., and Wong, F., A GIS-based regional analysis of the potential for shallow-seated submarine slope failure: Proceedings, International Symposium on Landslides.

  • McGann, M., and Sloan, D., Benthic foraminifers in the Regional Monitoring Program's San Francisco Estuary samples: San Francisco Estuary Institute 1997 Regional Monitoring Program Volume.

  • Merman, E.A., Betzer, P.R., and Shinn, E.A., Coral and atmospheric dust: A new perspective for Krakatau (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Molzer, P.C., ten Brink, U.S., Fisher, M.A., Brocher, T.M., Creager, K.C., and Crosson, R.S., Seismic structure of Seattle Fault, Seattle Basin, and Kingston Arch, Washington (abs.): EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union.

  • Morton, R.A., Geoindicators of coastal change in the humid tropics (abs.): International Geological Congress 2000.

  • Morton, R.A., Production-induced subsidence and fault reactivation in the western Gulf Coast Basin: AAPG Annual Meeting.

  • Noble, M., and Ryan, H., The dynamics of subtidal poleward flows over a narrow continental shelf, Palos Verdes, CA (abs.): Eastern Pacific Oceanic Conference, Lake Tahoe, CA, Oct. 5-8, 1999.

  • Normark, W.R., Sliter, R., Hart, P.E., and Holton, D.J., Evidence for a buried gas-hydrate mound in turbidite fill of the Gulf of Santa Catalina, offshore southern California (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Pecher, I., ten Brink, U., and Zhang, J., Refraction/reflection tomography of wide-angle seismic data from the Cascadia subduction zone, offshore the Olympic Peninsula, WA (abs.): EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union.

  • Phillips, L., and Grantz, A., Depositional cycles in the western Arctic Ocean: Implications for the history of glacial-ice input and onset and variability of sea-ice cover (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Reid, J.A., Fildani, A., and Normark, W.R., Monterey East turbidite stage: A channel/levee complex or a zone of turbulent flow stripping? (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Ross, S.L., Ryan, H.F., and Stevenson, A.J., A new map of the offshore San Gregorio fault between Pillar Point and Pescadero, CA (abs.): AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-18, 1999, San Francisco.

  • Ryan, H., and Noble, M., Wind forcing of sea level and temperature along the west coast of North America as a function of periodicity (abs.): 2000 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Jan. 24-28, 2000, San Antonio, TX.

  • Spinelli, G.A., and Field, M.E., Evolution of a network of continental slope gullies on the northern California margin: Sedimentology.

  • ten Brink, U., and Driscoll, N., High-resolution images of the San Andreas Fault offshore San Francisco (abs.): EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union.

  • Thieler, E.R., Schwab, W.C., Gayes, P.T., Pilkey, O.H., Jr, Cleary, W.J., and Scanlon, K.M., Paleoshorelines on the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Continental Shelf: Evidence for sea-level stillstands and rapid rises during deglaciation (abs.): Non-steady state of the inner shelf and shoreline: Coastal Change on the time scale of decades to millennia: Hawaii University, November 8-12, 1999.

  • Torresan, M.E., Gardner, J.V., and Hampton, M.A., Geophysical and geological monitoring of Hawaiian ocean disposal sites with multibeam sonar and bottom sampling (abs.): The Non-Steady-State of the Inner Shelf and Shoreline--Coastal Change on the Time Scale of Decades to Millennia in the Late Quaternary, Nov. 9-12, 1999, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

  • Williams, K., Pinzon, Z.S., Stumpf, R.P., and Raabe, E., Sea-level rise and coastal forests on the Gulf of Mexico: USGS Open-File Report.


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