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FieldworkCover Story

Scientists Discover a New Pacific Iguana and More Clues to a Longtime Mystery


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Newly discovered Pacific iguana Brachylophus bulabula; male
Above: Newly discovered Pacific iguana Brachylophus bulabula; male. Photograph copyright © Paddy Ryan, Ryan Photographic; used with permission. [larger version]

Brachylophus bulabula; female
Above: Brachylophus bulabula; female on Kadavu Island, Fiji. Photograph copyright © Paddy Ryan, Ryan Photographic; used with permission. [larger version]

map of Fiji
Above: Fiji comprises more than 300 islands, of which approximately 110 are inhabited. [larger version]
A new iguana has been discovered in the central regions of Fiji. The colorful new species, named Brachylophus bulabula, joins only two other living Pacific iguana species, one of which is critically endangered. The scientific name bulabula is a doubling of bula, the Fijian word for "hello," offering an even more enthusiastic greeting.

Pacific iguanas have almost disappeared as the result of human presence. Two species were eaten to extinction after people arrived on the islands nearly 3,000 years ago. The three living Brachylophus iguana species face threats from loss and alteration of their habitat, as well as from feral cats, mongooses, and goats that eat iguanas or their food sources.

"Our new understanding of the species diversity in this group is a first step in identifying conservation targets," said Robert Fisher, a research zoologist at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Diego and coauthor of a study on the new iguana with scientists from the Australian National University and Macquarie University in Australia.

An important finding for conservation of the genetic diversity in these iguanas is that, with only one exception, each of the 13 islands where living iguanas were sampled showed at least one distinct iguana genetic line that was not seen elsewhere.

The Fiji crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, is gone from many islands it once occupied and is now listed as Critically Endangered on the "Red List" of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the world's oldest and largest global environmental network. "Unfortunately, this new study indicates that the other, previously identified Pacific iguana species, Brachylophus fasciatus, is probably critically endangered also," Fisher said.

The mystery of how the Pacific iguanas originally arrived has long puzzled biologists and geographers. Their closest relatives are found nearly 5,000 miles across the ocean in the New World.

"The distinctive Fijian iguanas are famous for their beauty and also for their unusual occurrence in the middle of the Pacific Ocean—all of their closest relatives are in the Americas," said Scott Keogh, an associate professor at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, and lead author of the study.

The highest islands of Fiji have been continuously above sea level for at least the past 16 million years, and the current study's findings suggest that the Pacific iguanas, both extinct and living, were likely on the islands much of that time. Ancestors of the Pacific iguanas may have arrived as early as 13 million years ago after making a 5,000-mile rafting trip from the New World.

Realizing that scientists are just now describing the diversity in even such colorful and distinctive groups as Pacific iguanas is important in setting biodiversity targets for the Pacific Basin.

Brachylophus bulabula; male Brachylophus bulabula; male in threat posture
Above left: Brachylophus bulabula; male on Ovalau Island, Fiji. Photograph copyright © Peter S. Harlow; used with permission. [larger version]

Above right: Brachylophus bulabula; male in threat posture on Kadavu Island, Fiji. Photograph copyright © Paddy Ryan, Ryan Photographic; used with permission. [larger version]

"This island basin is currently under attack by a number of invasive species, such as the brown tree snake, various rat species, and the coqui frog, which tend to reduce biodiversity," said Fisher. "Climate change may reduce coastal habitats and alter coastlines in the Pacific, further putting biodiversity at risk. A more accurate understanding of the patterns and processes that impact diversity in these unique island groups will help land managers set appropriate goals for conservation of these resources."

The new discovery was published in a recent special edition of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that pays tribute to Charles Darwin's contribution to our understanding of evolution in the Pacific region. The other coauthors of the study are Danielle Edwards at the Australian National University and Peter Harlow at Macquarie University in Australia.

The full reference for the paper is:

Keogh, J.S., Edwards, D.L., Fisher, R.N., and Harlow, P.S., 2008, Molecular and morphological analysis of the critically endangered Fijian iguanas reveals cryptic diversity and a complex biogeographic history, in Trewick, S.A., and Cowie, R.H., eds., Evolution on Pacific islands; Darwin's legacy: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, v. 363, no. 1508, p. 3413-3426, doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0120 [URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0120].


Related Web Sites
Molecular and morphological analysis of the critically endangered Fijian iguanas reveals cryptic diversity and a complex biogeographic history
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B
International Union for Conservation of Nature
environmental network

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Fieldwork
cover story:
Scientists Discover New Pacific Iguana

Tracking Sea Otters

Research Sea-Otter Decline Affects Kelp Forests and Eagles

Outreach International Coastal Cleanup

Awards Norling Receives Diversity Award

Publications November 2008 Publications List


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